La nocturia incide en la calidad de vida

La nocturia es la necesidad de levantarse a orinar más de una vez por la noche; esta situación repercute de forma muy notable sobre la calidad de vida de quien la padece, en particular cuando el paciente se levanta 3, 4 o incluso hasta 8 veces por la noche.
En los pacientes de edad avanzada, produce un aumento del riesgo de caídas y fracturas por la falta de sueño causando un incremento indirecto de la mortalidad.

La nocturia es una condición muy frecuente en la población, en particular con el envejecimiento. La mitad de la población mayor de 50 años se levanta por la noche dos ó más veces a orinar. Afecta a ambos sexos, aunque entre los 18 y 29 años las mujeres tienen una probabilidad 10 veces mayor que los hombres en padecer esta sintomatología.
La mayoría de los pacientes no suelen consultar cuando les afecta este problema porque se le asocia a “cosas de la edad” y muchas veces los médicos le restan la importancia que tiene. La nocturia es un síntoma que suele enmascarar una patología subyacente y puede ser el reflejo de una enfermedad sistémica, una afectación del sistema urinario o ser consecuencia de alteraciones del sueño. Éstas últimas tienen un efecto negativo sobre el confort del paciente, su actividad física de día, su bienestar emocional y su calidad de vida, tanto personal como laboral.

Múltiples investigaciones han asociado la nocturia con la hipertensión, enfermedad cardiovascular y el ictus. También la falta de sueño derivada de esta sintomatología puede incrementar los riesgos de depresión, obesidad, diabetes y otras enfermedades metabólicas. En una revisión de todos los estudios clínicos sobre nocturia, se ha verificado un 22% de incremento en todas las causas de mortalidad.

Es fundamental realizar una historia clínica detallada y un examen físico del paciente, y no solo del aparato genito-urinario sino del aparato cardiovascular.

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