La obesidad seguirá incrementándose en los próximos años en todo el mundo.

La obesidad, que seguirá incrementándose en los próximos años en todo el mundo, también tiene una gran repercusión sobre el funcionamiento renal. Es una de las principales causas de la enfermedad renal crónica, por la repercusión que tiene sobre el sistema cardiovascular. Aparte de la eliminación de las toxinas que produce el cuerpo, el riñón tiene otras funciones primordiales como la producción de una hormona, la eritropoyetina, cuya principal labor es la regulación de la producción de sangre evitando la anemia.

Las personas obesas tienen una mayor probabilidad de tener cálculos en los riñones; el mayor peso produce cambios fisiológicos en el funcionamiento de los mismos y, como consecuencia, mayor eliminación de ácido úrico, sodio y fósforo. Además, la mayoría de las personas con sobrepeso consumen dietas con alto contenidos proteicos que facilitan la formación de litiasis urológicas.

Un dato poco conocido es que las personas obesas tienen mayor probabilidad de tener cáncer renal, aunque el motivo aún se desconoce. Estudios han verificado que el aumento del índice de masa corporal (la relación entre la altura y el peso) conlleva a un aumento de la probabilidad de desarrollar un tumor renal.

Ya hemos escrito en múltiples ocasiones que el índice de masa corporal no es el mejor indicador de obesidad porque no hace una estimación rigurosa de la distribución de la grasa corporal (las personas musculosas o atléticas podrían parecer obesas). Es mucho más importante medir la relación entre la cintura-cadera (ICC) y la propia cintura porque mide de forma más aproximada la cantidad de grasa abdominal que es el verdadero factor de riesgo. Los parámetros establecidos en el momento actual de la relación cintura-cadera son 0,9 cm para los hombres y de 0,8 para las mujeres

El diagnóstico temprano de estas enfermedades y su prevención resultan cruciales para tener una vejez sana; evitar la diabetes, la hipertensión y la obesidad protegerá a sus riñones de su deterioro.

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