¿La píldora masculina ya es una realidad?

En el congreso de la Sociedad Americana de Endocrinología celebrado en Chicago, se han presentado los resultados de un estudio sobre una píldora anticonceptiva para hombres.
Los progresos hacia el anticonceptivo masculino han estado limitados hasta ahora por los efectos secundarios (inflamación del hígado) y la administración (dos dosis al día).

El anticonceptivo presentado se llama dimetandrolona undecanoato o DMAU y combina la actividad de un andrógeno como la testosterona y un progestágeno. El fármaco se toma una vez al día. La mayoría de los hombres han afirmado preferir una toma diaria de una pastilla frente a las inyecciones o los geles tópicos que también están en fase de estudio.
Este estudio incluyó 100 hombres sanos, de edades comprendidas entre 18 y 50 años y se desarrolló entre las Universidades de Washington y en el Harbor-UCLA de California. Los investigadores analizaron 3 diferentes dosis de DMAU (100, 200 y 400 miligramos). Los pacientes fueron divididos en dos grupos de estudio: a un grupo se le administró un placebo y el otro grupo recibió el fármaco. Los pacientes tomaron el fármaco durante 28 días una vez al día, y con comida para ser efectiva. Un total de 83 hombres completaron el estudio y a todos se les realizó una analítica de sangre para analizar las hormonas y el colesterol al comienzo y al final del estudio.

Los pacientes que tomaron la máxima dosis del fármaco, 400 mg, tuvieron una marcada supresión de sus niveles de testosterona y de las hormonas necesarias para la producción espermática. Estos bajos niveles eran consistentes con una anticoncepción masculina efectiva.

A pesar de tener menores niveles de testosterona circulante, muy pocos pacientes describieron síntomas consistentes con la deficiencia de testosterona. Todos los grupos en tratamiento con DMAU tuvieron ganancia de peso y un descenso en los niveles de HDL que es el colesterol bueno, aunque fueron moderados. Todos los pacientes fueron además sometidos a un estudio hepático y renal sin presentar alteraciones.

Estos resultados prometedores son novedosos en el desarrollo de un pastilla masculina anticonceptiva. Se necesitan estudios a largo plazo para confirmar que DMAU diaria bloquea la producción espermática.

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